171 comentarios

Mac

Mac OS (del inglés Macintosh Operating System, en español Sistema Operativo de Macintosh) es el nombre del sistema operativo creado por Apple para su línea de computadoras Macintosh. Es conocido por haber sido el primer sistema dirigido al gran público en contar con una interfaz gráfica compuesta por la interacción del mouse con ventanas, Icono y menús.

Apple restó importancia de forma deliberada a la existencia del sistema operativo en los primeros años de su línea Macintosh en favor de que la máquina resultara más agradable al usuario, diferenciándolo de otros sistemas contemporáneos, como MS-DOS, que eran un desafío técnico. El equipo de desarrollo del Mac OS original incluía a Bill Atkinson, Jef Raskin y Andy Hertzfeld.

Esta fue la base del Mac OS clásico, desarrollado íntegramente por Apple, cuya primera versión vio la luz en 1984. Su desarrollo se extendería hasta la versión 9 del sistema, lanzada en 1999. A partir de la versión 10 (Mac OS X), el sistema cambio su arquitectura totalmente y pasó a basarse en Unix, sin embargo su interfaz gráfica mantiene muchos elementos de las versiones anteriores.

Hay una gran variedad de versiones sobre cómo fue desarrollado el Mac OS original y dónde se originaron las ideas subyacentes. Pese a esto documentos históricos prueban la existencia entre el proyecto Macintosh y el proyecto Alto de Xerox PARC. Las contribuciones iniciales del Sketchpad de Ivan Sutherland y el On-Line System de Doug Engelbart también fueron significativas.

Versiones

Antes de la introducción de los últimos sistemas basados en el microprocesador PowerPC G3, partes significativas del sistema se almacenaban en la memoria física de sólo lectura de la placa base. El propósito inicial de esto fue evitar el uso de la capacidad de almacenamiento limitada de los disquetes de apoyo al sistema, dado que el los primeros computadores Macintosh no tenían disco duro. Sólo el modelo Macintosh Classic de 1991, podía ser iniciado desde la memoria ROM. Esta arquitectura también permitió una interfaz de sistema operativo totalmente gráfica en el nivel más bajo, sin la necesidad de una consola de sólo texto o el modo de comandos de línea. Los errores en tiempo de arranque, como la búsqueda de unidades de disco que no funcionaban, se comunicaron al usuario de manera gráfica, generalmente con un icono o con mensajes con el tipo de letre Chicago y un Timbre de la muerte o una serie de pitidos. Esto contrastaba con los PCs de la época, que mostraban tales mensajes con un tipo de letra mono-espaciada sobre un fondo negro, y que requerían el uso del teclado y no de un ratón, para la entrada. Para proporcionar tales detalles en un nivel bajo, el Mac OS dependía de software de la base del sistema grabado en la ROM de la placa base, lo que más tarde ayudó a garantizar que sólo los computadores de Apple o los clones bajo licencia (con el contenido de la memoria ROM protegido por derechos de autor de Apple, pudieran ejecutar el Mac OS.

El Mac OS puede ser dividido en dos familias:

  • La familia Mac OS Classic, basada en el código propio de Apple Computer.
  • El Sistema Operativo Mac OS X, desarrollado a partir de la familia Mac OS Classic y NeXTSTEP, el cual estaba basado en UNIX.

“Classic” Mac OS (1984–2001)

Artículo principal: Historia del Mac OS.

El “Mac OS clásico” se caracteriza por su falta total de una línea de comandos; es un Sistema Operativo completamente gráfico. Destaca por su facilidad de uso y su multitarea cooperativa, pero fue criticado por su gestión de memoria muy limitada, la falta de memoria protegida y la susceptibilidad a los conflictos entre las “extensiones” del sistema operativo que proporcionan funcionalidades adicionales (tales como la creación de redes) o el apoyo a un determinado dispositivo. Algunas extensiones pueden no funcionar correctamente en conjunto, o sólo funcionan cuando se cargan en un orden determinado. La solución de problemas de extensiones de Mac OS podría ser un largo proceso de ensayo y error.

El Macintosh original utilizaba el Macintosh File System (MFS), un sistema de archivos plano con un solo nivel de carpetas o directorios. Este sistema fue rápidamente reemplazado en 1985 por el HFS, que tenía un verdadero sistema de árbol de directorio. Ambos sistemas de archivos son compatibles.

La mayoría de los sistemas de archivos utilizados con el DOS, Unix u otros sistemas operativos tratan a un archivo como una simple secuencia de bytes, lo que requiere una aplicación para saber qué bytes representan cual tipo de información. Por el contrario, MFS y HFS dan a los archivos dos bifurcaciones. La bifurcación de datos contiene el mismo tipo de información como otros sistemas de archivos, tales como el texto de un documento o los mapas de bits de un archivo de imagen. La bifurcación de recursos contiene otros datos estructurados, tales como las definiciones de menús, gráficos, sonidos o segmentos de código. Un archivo puede consistir sólo de los recursos con de datos vacía, o sólo una bifurcación de datos, sin bifurcación de recursos. Un archivo de texto puede contener su texto en la bifurcación de datos y la información de estilo en la bifurcación de recursos, de modo que una aplicación, que no reconoce la información de estilo, todavía puede leer el texto sin formato. Por otro lado, estas una bifurcaciones proporcionan un reto para la interoperabilidad con otros sistemas operativos; el copiado de un archivo desde un sistema Mac a otro diferente, lo despoja de su bifurcación de recursos, requiriendo de sistemas de codificación tales como BinHex y MacBinary.

Las versiones para la plataforma PowerPC de Mac OS X hasta, e incluyendo, Mac OS X v10.4 Tiger no poseen una capa de compatibilidad para ejecutar las aplicaciones más antiguas de Mac, llamada el entorno Classic. Este entorno ejecuta una copia completa del Mac OS, versión 9.1 o posterior, en un proceso de Mac OS X. Los MacIntosh basados en la plataforma PowerPC tenían el Mac OS 9.2 preinstalado así como el Mac OS X. El Mac OS 9.2 tuvo que ser instalado por el usuario, puesto que no se instalaba, por defecto, en las revisiones de hardware presentadas tras el lanzamiento de Mac OS X 10.4 Tiger. La mayoría de las aplicaciones “clásicas” bien escritas funciona correctamente en este entorno, pero la compatibilidad sólo se asegura si el software fue escrito sin tener en cuenta el hardware actual, y para interactuar únicamente con el sistema operativo. El Entorno Classic no está disponible en sistemas Macintosh basados en plataformas de Intel, debido a la incompatibilidad del Mac OS 9 con el hardware x86.

Los usuarios del Mac OS Classic en general, actualizaron sus máquinas a Mac OS X, pero muchos criticaron a este último por ser más difícil y menos amigable con el usuario que el original sistema operativo Mac, por la falta de ciertas características que no habían sido re-implementadas en el nuevo sistema operativo, o por ser más lento en el mismo hardware (especialmente el más antiguo) u otros, o incompatibilidades, a veces graves con el antiguo sistema operativo. Debido a que los controladores (para impresoras, escáneres, tabletas, etc), escritos para los antiguos Mac OS no son compatibles con Mac OS X, y debido a la falta de soporte para Mac OS X para máquinas más antiguas de Apple, un número significativo de usuarios de Macintosh sigue utilizando el antiguo Mac OS Clásico. Pero para el año 2005, se había informado que casi todos los usuarios de sistemas capaces de ejecutar Mac OS X lo están haciendo, con sólo una pequeña fracción ejecutando el Mac OS Classic.

En junio de 2005, Steve Jobs anunció en la apertura de la Conferencia Mundial de Desarrolladores de Apple que la empresa haría la transición de la plataforma PowerPC a procesadores Intel y por lo tanto dejaría de lado la compatibilidad de las nuevas máquinas para Mac OS Classic. En la misma conferencia, Jobs anunció kits de transición para desarrolladores que incluían versiones beta del software de Apple, incluyendo Mac OS X que los desarrolladores podían utilizar para probar sus aplicaciones, mientras las transportaban para ejecutarlas en computadores Mac con procesadores Intel. En enero de 2006, Apple lanzó las primeras computadoras Macintosh con procesadores Intel, un iMac y el MacBook Pro, y al mes siguiente, Apple lanzó un mini Mac con un procesador Intel Core Solo y Duo. El 16 de mayo de 2006, Apple lanzó el MacBook, antes de completar la transición a Intel el 7 de agosto con el Mac Pro. Para facilitar la transición para los primeros compradores de las nuevas máquinas, los equipos Mac basados en Intel incluyen una tecnología de emulación llamada Rosetta, que les permite ejecutar software de Mac OS X que fue compilado para sistemas Macintosh basados en PowerPC. Rosetta se ejecuta de forma transparente, creando una experiencia de usuario idéntica a la de ejecutar el software en una máquina PowerPC, aunque la ejecución es más lento que con código nativo.

Mac OS X

Artículo principal: Mac OS X.

Es lo más nuevo en la línea de sistemas operativos de Apple. Aunque oficialmente es designado como “version 10” del Mac OS, tiene una historia en gran medida independiente de las versiones anteriores de Mac OS. Es el sucesor del Mac OS 9 y el Mac OS Classic. Se trata de un Sistema Operativo Unix, basado en el sistema operativo NeXTSTEP y el Núcleo Mach que Apple adquirió tras la compra de NeXT, al regresar su director general Steve Jobs a Apple en este momento. Mac OS X también hace uso del código base de BSD. Han existido siete liberaciones significativas de la versión de cliente, siendo la más reciente la Mac OS X 10.7, conocida como Mac OS X Lion.

Así como las versiones de cliente, Mac OS X también ha tenido seis liberaciones significativas, como una versión de servidor, llamada Mac OS X Server. El primero de ellos, Mac OS X Server 1.0, fue lanzado en versión beta en 1999. Las versiones de servidor son, en arquitectura, idénticas a las versiones de cliente, con la diferencia en la inclusión de herramientas para administración de servidores, incluyendo herramientas para la gestión de sistemas basados en Mac OS X como servidores de grupos de trabajo, servidores de correo y servidores web, entre otras herramientas. Es actualmente el sistema operativo por defecto para el hardware de servidor Xserve, y como característica opcional en el Mac Mini, así como instalable en la mayoría de otros Macs. A diferencia de la versión de cliente, Mac OS X Server se puede ejecutar en una máquina virtual utilizando un software de emulación como Parallels Desktop.

Mac OS X es también la base del iOS, anteriormente conocido como el Sistema Operativo del iPhone, el iPod Touch y el iPad, así como la base para el sistema operativo utilizado en el Apple TV.

Proyecto Star Trek

Un aspecto interesante de la historia del Mac OS clásico fue un prototipo secreto relativamente desconocido en el que Apple comenzó a trabajar en 1992, cuyo nombre en código fue Star Trek. El objetivo de este proyecto era crear una versión de Mac OS que se ejecutara en computadoras personales x86 compatibles con Intel. La intención de la liberación en colaboración con Novell, era proporcionar compatibilidad DOS, en apoyo de las aplicaciones DOS existentes en la plataforma. En ese momento, Novell DOS estaba perdiendo cuota de mercado ya que los clientes se actualizaban a Windows. Una combinación de Mac OS y Novell DOS se consideró una alternativa. El proyecto fue de corta duración, y se canceló sólo un año más tarde a principios de 1993, cuando el nuevo CEO de Apple cambió de estrategia. El equipo fue capaz de hacer que el Macintosh Finder y algunas aplicaciones básicas, como QuickTime, funcionen a la perfección en un PC. Parte del código de este esfuerzo fue reutilizado más tarde cuando se trasladó el Mac OS a PowerPC.

Quince años después del proyecto Star Trek, fue incluido oficialmente el soporte a la arquitectura x86 en el Mac OS, y luego Apple trasladó todas las computadoras de escritorio para la arquitectura x86. Este no fue el resultado directo de los anteriores esfuerzos del Proyecto Star Trek. El desarrollo Darwin utilizado en Mac OS X 10.0 y posteriores incluyó soporte para la arquitectura x86. El restante de Mac OS no-Darwin se dio a conocer oficialmente con la introducción de los ordenadores Macintosh x86.

Emulación del procesador 68000

A pesar de que el software Star Trek nunca fue presentado, emuladores de terceros como vMac, Basilisk II, y Executor, han permitido ejecutar el Mac OS Clásico con PC basados en los miroprocesadores Intel. Estos programas fueron limitados a emular la serie de procesadores 68000 y la mayoría, como tal, no podía correr las versiones de Mac OS posteriores a la 8.1, que requiere procesadores PowerPC. La mayoría también requiere una “imagen” Mac ROM o una interfaz de hardware de un verdadero Mac ROM. Los que requieren de una imagen son de dudoso valor legal ya que la imagen ROM puede infringir la propiedad intelectual de Apple.

Una excepción notable fue el software comercial Executor de la empresa Abacus Research & Development, el único producto que usó exclusivamente código 100% mediante ingeniería inversa, sin el uso de la tecnología de Apple. Se ejecutaba muy rápido pero nunca logró más allá de un subconjunto menor de funcionalidades. Pocos programas fueron completamente compatibles, y muchos son muy propensos a sufrir fallas si se ejecutaban. Executor llenó un nicho de mercado para transportar aplicaciones Mac 68000 clásico a las plataformas x86. El desarrollo se detuvo en el año 2002 y el código fuente fue liberado por el autor a finales de 2008.

Los emuladores que utilizaban las imágenes Mac ROM ofrecían casi completa compatibilidad con Mac OS y las versiones posteriores ofrecieron un excelente rendimiento mientras el desempeño de los modernos procesadores x86 aumentaba de manera exponencial.

La mayoría de los usuarios de computadoras MacIntosh ya había comenzado a cambiarse a la plataforma PowerPC que ofrecía compatibilidad con las versiones del sistema operativo 8.xx y 9.xx junto con soporte de software para el rápido PowerPC. Esto ayudó a facilitar la transición a las aplicaciones solo para PowerPC, mientras los emuladores prematuramente obsoloteos de procesadores 68000 y las aplicaciones para entorno Clásico que ellas soportaban bien, se perfeccionanan lo suficiente como para competir con una verdadera computadora Mac.

Emulación de PowerPC

En el momento del desarrollo del emulador 68000, el soporte a PowerPC fue difícil de justificar no sólo debido al código de emulación en sí, sino también el gran rendimiento previsto de una arquitectura emulada de PowerPC frente a una verdadera Mac basada en PowerPC. Esto más tarde probaría ser correcto con el inicio del proyecto PearPC incluso años después, a pesar de la disponibilidad de la 7ª y 8ª generación de procesadores x86 empleando paradigmas de arquitectura similares a los presentes en PowerPC. Muchos desarrolladores de aplicaciones también crearon y lanzaron versiones para 68000 Classic y PowerPC simultáneamente, ayudando a negar la necesidad de la emulación de PowerPC. Usuarios de Mac con PowerPC que técnicamente podían ejecutar cualquiera de las dos opciones, obviamente eligieron las aplicaciones de PowerPC más rápidas. Pronto Apple ya no vendía Macs basadas en 68000, y la base instalada existente comenzó a evaporarse rápidamente. A pesar de la eventual excelente tecnología de emulación 68000 disponible, probaron nunca ser ni siquiera una amenaza menor a Macs reales debido a su retraso en la llegada e inmadurez incluso varios años después de la salida de Macs basadas en PowerPC mucho más convincentes.

El emulador PearPC es capaz de emular los procesadores PowerPC requeridos por las nuevas versiones de Mac OS (como Mac OS X). Por desgracia, todavía está en sus primeras etapas y, al igual que muchos emuladores, tiende a ser mucho más lento que un sistema operativo nativo.

Durante la transición de PowerPC a los procesadores Intel, Apple se dio cuenta de la necesidad de incorporar un emulador de PowerPC en Mac OS X con el fin de proteger las inversiones de sus clientes en software diseñado para ejecutarse en el PowerPC. La solución de Apple es un emulador llamado Rosetta. Antes del anuncio de Rosetta, los observadores de la industria asumieron que cualquier emulador de PowerPC, corriendo sobre un procesador x86 sufriría una excesiva merma de rendimiento (por ejemplo, PearPC es de bajo rendimiento). Rosetta tiene una merma de rendimiento relativamente menor, por lo que tomó por sorpresa a muchos.

Otro emulador de PowerPC es SheepShaver, que ha estado con nosotros desde 1998 para BeOS en la plataforma PowerPC pero en 2002 fue convertido a código abierto con el fin de conseguir que fuera ejecutable en otras plataformas. Originalmente no estaba diseñado para su uso en plataformas x86 y requiería un procesador PowerPC real presente en la máquina en que se ejecutaba de manera similar a un hypervisor. A pesar de que proporciona soporte al procesador PowerPC, sólo puede ejecutar hasta Mac OS 9.0.4, ya que no emula una unidad de manejo de memoria.

Otros ejemplos son ShapeShifter (por el mismo programador que concibió SheepShaver), Fusion y iFusion. Este último corrió el Mac OS clásico con una tarjeta aceleradora “coprocesador” PowerPC. El uso de este método se ha dicho que iguala o mejora la velocidad de un equipo Macintosh con el mismo procesador, en especial con respecto a la serie m68k debido a Macs reales ejecutándose en modo de desvío de MMU, obstaculizando el desempeño.

Clones de Macintosh

Varios fabricantes de computadores a través de los años han hecho clones de Macintosh capaces de ejecutar Mac OS, en particular Power Computing, UMAX y Motorola. Estas máquinas ejecutaron varias versiones del sistema operativo clásico de Mac. En 1997 Steve Jobs cerró el programa de licencia clon al regresar a Apple.

En 2008 el fabricante estadounidense Psystar Corporation anunció un ordenador de bajo coste (499 USD) que ejecutaba Mac OS X 10.5 Leopard. Amenazados por las batallas legales, Psystar denominó a su sistema OpenMac y posteriormente Open Computer. Actualmente Apple sigue en litigio con esta compañía a la que pretende hacer pagar por daños y perjuicios, por cada clon vendido y por los costes de la batalla legal.

En 2009 el fabricante HyperMegaNet UG lanzó un ordenador “Macintosh Compatible” bajo la marca comercial PearC basándose en el hecho de que la Licencia de software no puede aceptarse al no poder ser leída antes de adquirir el producto puesto que se encuentra dentro de la caja en la que viene el ordenador por lo que la parte que apela a la no instalación de OS X en hardware que no sea Apple es nula a todos los efectos, al menos en Alemania

Anuncios

171 comentarios el “Mac

  1. When I first saw this title 301 Moved Permanently on google I just whent and bookmark it.Hello my loved one! I wish to say that this article is amazing, great written and include approximately all important infos. I would like to see extra posts like this .

  2. When I first saw this title Mac IphoneBerry on google I just whent and bookmark it.I’m glad to see that you’re addressing this important topic in such a straightforward and easily understandable way. Best wishes. I’ll be back.

  3. When I first saw this title Mac IphoneBerry on google I just whent and bookmark it.magnificent points altogether, you just received a brand new reader. What might you recommend in regards to your submit that you simply made some days in the past? Any positive?

  4. Excellent post. I was checking constantly this blog and I’m impressed! Extremely useful information specially the last part 🙂 I care for such info much. I was looking for this particular information for a very long time. Thank you and best of luck.

  5. I simply want to say I am just newbie to blogging and honestly loved your web site. Most likely I’m planning to bookmark your blog . You really come with amazing articles. Many thanks for sharing with us your web-site.

  6. I simply want to say I am beginner to weblog and seriously loved this page. Probably I’m going to bookmark your site . You amazingly come with really good stories. Thanks a lot for sharing with us your web page.

  7. I conceive this internet website holds some real superb info for every person : D.

  8. I like this site so significantly, saved to favorites .

  9. You might also need designed money runs made with your own property records, confidence deeds, or even organization sounds http://www.artipr.com/feeds/2301027472.xml in addition to which might be the main element to the monetary potential.

  10. Hey, fantastic blog you’ve got here, feel I came across it on Yahoo but im not sure nowanyway, Ill check back once more! Are guests allowed to post here?

  11. F*ckin’ remarkable things here. I am very glad to see your article. Thanks a lot and i am looking forward to contact you. Will you please drop me a mail?

  12. Wow! This could be one specific of the most valuable blogs We have ever arrive across on this topic. Really Great. I am also an expert in this subject so I can recognize your hard work.

  13. I am not sure where you are getting your info, but great topic. I needs to spend some time learning more or understanding more. Thanks for excellent info I was looking for this information for my mission.

  14. you’re really a excellent webmaster. The web site loading velocity is incredible. It kind of feels that you are doing any unique trick. Furthermore, The contents are masterwork. you have performed a wonderful task on this subject!

  15. Very interesting topic, thanks for putting up.

  16. Very interesting topic, appreciate it for putting up.

  17. Very interesting subject, regards for putting up.

  18. Very interesting subject, regards for putting up.

  19. hi!,I like your writing so a lot! share we be in contact more approximately your article on AOL? I require a specialist on this space to unravel my problem. May be that is you! Having a look forward to see you.

  20. After study a few of the blog posts in your website now, and I really like your means of blogging. I bookmarked it to my bookmark website listing and shall be checking back soon. Pls try my site as well and let me know what you think.

  21. Very interesting topic, thanks for putting up.

  22. Very interesting topic, thanks for putting up.

  23. Thanks used for sharing superb in order. Your web-site is vastly cool. I am impressed by the info that you have proceeding this situate. It reveals how nicely you perceive this subject. Bookmarked this web summon, will extend in exchange representing further articles.

  24. Incredible, this web site is great! I actually do not really know how you do it although here I discovered everything i was ready for! Just where performed anyone have? Allow know; )

  25. Would you run an additional site? Seems like in my experience i experienced viewed the style aspect, but the other ended up being in relation to something different. Effectively, by things i see is really a web template created about get.

  26. Whats up very cool site!! Guy .. Excellent .. Superb .. I’ll bookmark your blog and take the feeds additionally…I am glad to search out a lot of helpful information here within the publish, we’d like work out more strategies in this regard, thanks for sharing.

  27. I possess proposed your site to everyone my local freinds, they are really excited! Still have not necessarily met with these kinds of great information putting with your web page! You’re carrying out a thing!

  28. Until finally I actually been to often the an individual, I did not think that someone may compose really good words in addition to content articles online, which will travels me besides making you think that. This specific altered with all the second after i commence learn you. You are incredible!

  29. I conceive you have mentioned some very interesting points , thankyou for the post.

  30. I truly enjoy examining on this site, it holds great articles .

  31. Hi! A big name in my Facebook group shared this locate with us accordingly I came to ensure it outdated. I’m definitely loving the information. I’m bookmarking and will be present twittering this to my followers! First-rate blog and terrific design.

  32. Good sunlight hours. Self-same cool site!! Guy .. Outstanding .. Brilliant .. I will bookmark your blog and engage the feeds additionally…I’m joyful to locate a lot of practical information acceptably now in the article. Express gratitude you for sharing..

  33. Excellent post however , I was wondering if you could write a litte more on this subject? I’d be very grateful if you could elaborate a little bit further. Many thanks!

  34. Great – I should definitely pronounce, impressed with your site. I had no trouble navigating through all the tabs as well as related info ended up being truly easy to do to access. I recently found what I hoped for before you know it at all. Reasonably unusual. Is likely to appreciate it for those who add forums or anything, site theme . a tones way for your client to communicate. Excellent task.

  35. Just wanna tell that this is very beneficial , Thanks for taking your time to write this.

  36. 1. Behr Decking Stainbr /2. Semi-transparent drinking water primarily based stainbr /3. July 2011br /4. Peeled within six months

  37. This post HAS Provided ME Beneficial Info AND Good SENSIBLE GUIDANCE, THANKS

  38. Somebody essentially assist to make significantly posts I would state. This is the first time I frequented your web page and to this point? I amazed with the analysis you made to make this particular submit extraordinary. Fantastic task!

  39. I’d must check with you here. Which isn’t one thing I usually do! I get pleasure from studying a put up that will make folks think. Additionally, thanks for permitting me to remark!

  40. Really like really like that jacket! The paired boots are excellent also. Just excellent for an overcast spring day.br /Lord Ashbury.

  41. Heya i am for the first time here. I came across this board and I find It really useful & it helped me out a lot. I hope to give something back and help others like you aided me.

  42. My brother suggested I might like this blog. He was totally right. This post truly made my day. You can not imagine simply how much time I had spent for this info! Thanks!

  43. Can I simply say what a aid to search out someone who actually knows what theyre speaking about on the internet. You positively know how you can bring a difficulty to mild and make it important. More individuals have to learn this and understand this side of the story. I cant believe youre no more popular because you undoubtedly have the gift.

  44. I have been surfing online greater than 3 hours these days, but I by no means discovered any fascinating article like yours. It’s pretty worth sufficient for me. Personally, if all site owners and bloggers made excellent content material as you probably did, the net can be much more helpful than ever before. “When there is a lack of honor in government, the morals of the whole people are poisoned.” by Herbert Clark Hoover.

  45. Very nice post. I just stumbled upon your weblog and wanted to say that I have really enjoyed surfing around your blog posts. In any case I’ll be subscribing to your rss feed and I hope you write again very soon!

  46. I really appreciate this post. I have been looking everywhere for this! Thank goodness I found it on Bing. You have made my day! Thanks again!

  47. I think other site proprietors should take this website as an model, very clean and fantastic user friendly style and design, let alone the content. You are an expert in this topic!

  48. Thanks for the ideas you have contributed here. Additionally, I believe usually there are some factors that keep your automobile insurance premium straight down. One is, to bear in mind buying automobiles that are inside good directory of car insurance businesses. Cars that are expensive will be more at risk of being lost. Aside from that insurance coverage is also depending on the value of your truck, so the more costly it is, then the higher your premium you pay.

  49. Excellent read, I just passed this onto a friend who was doing a little research on that. And he actually bought me lunch as I found it for him smile Thus let me rephrase that: Thank you for lunch!

  50. Whoa! This blog looks exactly like my old one! It’s on a totally different subject but it has pretty much the same layout and design. Excellent choice of colors!

  51. I am extremely impressed with your writing skills as well as with the layout on your blog. Is this a paid theme or did you customize it yourself? Either way keep up the excellent quality writing, it’s rare to see a nice blog like this one today..

  52. I intended to draft you a very little note just to say thanks yet again for the pretty pointers you’ve documented in this case. It’s so unbelievably generous with you to supply unreservedly what exactly many of us might have supplied as an ebook in making some dough for themselves, certainly seeing that you could possibly have tried it in case you wanted. These smart ideas in addition acted to become a easy way to know that most people have the identical dreams really like my personal own to find out whole lot more when it comes to this matter. I am sure there are millions of more pleasant periods ahead for individuals that view your blog post.

  53. Many thanks for your post. I’d like to comment that the tariff of car insurance differs a lot from one scheme to another, due to the fact there are so many different issues which give rise to the overall cost. For example, the brand name of the auto will have a large bearing on the price tag. A reliable outdated family auto will have a more economical premium compared to a flashy fancy car.

  54. It’s really a cool and helpful piece of information. I am glad that you shared this helpful info with us. Please stay us up to date like this. Thank you for sharing.

  55. Very interesting info!Perfect just what I was searching for!

  56. I definitely wanted to send a quick word to be able to appreciate you for some of the awesome facts you are posting at this site. My time consuming internet search has at the end been compensated with sensible details to exchange with my pals. I would believe that we website visitors are definitely endowed to exist in a great website with very many marvellous individuals with very helpful tactics. I feel quite blessed to have come across the web site and look forward to tons of more pleasurable moments reading here. Thanks once more for all the details.

  57. I have been browsing online greater than three hours as of late, but I never discovered any attention-grabbing article like yours. It¡¦s lovely worth enough for me. Personally, if all site owners and bloggers made good content material as you probably did, the internet shall be much more useful than ever before.

  58. I cherished up to you will obtain performed right here. The sketch is tasteful, your authored subject matter stylish. however, you command get got an shakiness over that you would like be handing over the following. unwell definitely come more earlier once more as exactly the same just about a lot frequently inside of case you defend this increase.

  59. I enjoy forgathering useful info, this post has got me even more info!

  60. Definitely imagine that which you stated. Your favorite justification appeared to be on the web the easiest thing to be mindful of. I say to you, I certainly get irked even as other people think about worries that they plainly do not know about. You controlled to hit the nail upon the top and defined out the entire thing without having side effect , people can take a signal. Will likely be again to get more. Thanks

  61. I genuinely enjoy studying on this internet site , it contains wonderful posts .

  62. I have seen that today, more and more people are increasingly being attracted to cameras and the subject of photography. However, really being a photographer, it’s important to first spend so much period deciding the exact model of video camera to buy along with moving from store to store just so you could buy the cheapest camera of the trademark you have decided to choose. But it would not end there. You also have to contemplate whether you should purchase a digital digicam extended warranty. Thanks a bunch for the good tips I obtained from your blog site.

  63. I just like the valuable info you supply for your articles. I’ll bookmark your blog and test again right here regularly. I’m quite sure I’ll be told lots of new stuff right here! Good luck for the following!

  64. Thanks for the sensible critique. Me and my neighbor were just preparing to do some research about this. We got a grab a book from our area library but I think I learned more from this post. I’m very glad to see such great information being shared freely out there.

  65. Good day! Do you use Twitter? I’d like to follow you if that would be ok. I’m undoubtedly enjoying your blog and look forward to new posts.

  66. Heya! I just wanted to ask if you ever have any trouble with hackers? My last blog (wordpress) was hacked and I ended up losing a few months of hard work due to no back up. Do you have any methods to prevent hackers?

  67. It’s really a nice and helpful piece of info. I’m glad that you simply shared this helpful information with us. Please keep us informed like this. Thanks for sharing.

  68. I am continually searching online for tips that can facilitate me. Thanks!

  69. I conceive this web site contains some real good information for everyone . “The public will believe anything, so long as it is not founded on truth.” by Edith Sitwell.

  70. Obviously I love your web-site, however you have to check the particular spelling on quite a few of the posts. Several of them are rife with spelling concerns and I think it is very troublesome to express to you. On the opposite hand I am going to surely keep coming back again!

  71. I gotta favorite this web site it seems extremely helpful extremely helpful

  72. I got what you intend, thanks for posting .Woh I am thankful to find this website through google. “Food is the most primitive form of comfort.” by Sheila Graham.

  73. I feel this is among the most significant info for me. And i am satisfied studying your article. But should statement on some basic things, The web site taste is perfect, the articles is actually excellent :D. Just right task, cheers.

  74. I quite like reading through an article that will make men and women think. Also, thanks for allowing for me to comment!

  75. I have recently started a website, the information you offer on this website has helped me greatly. Thank you for all of your time & work.

  76. Some really wonderful articles on this internet site, thank you for contribution. “There is one universal gesture that has one universal messagea smile” by Valerie Sokolosky.

  77. After I open up your Feed it appears to be a ton of junk, is the issue on my part?

  78. Great post, I believe blog owners should larn a lot from this web blog its rattling user genial. So much great information on here 😀 .

  79. I Will have to visit again when my course load lets up – however I am taking your Feed so i can go through your internet site offline. Cheers.

  80. Have you considered adding several social bookmarking buttons to these blogs. At least for twitter.

  81. Thank you for the sensible critique. Me and my neighbor were just preparing to do some research on this. We got a grab a book from our local library but I think I learned more from this post. I am very glad to see such great info being shared freely out there.

  82. I am not sure where you are getting your info, but good topic. I needs to spend some time learning more or understanding more. Thanks for wonderful info I was looking for this info for my mission.

  83. Just wanna state that this is handy , Thanks for taking your time to write this.

  84. You need to designed dollars flows manufactured from your real estate property records, have confidence in deeds, or business paperwork http://www.artipr.com/feeds/9321065548.xml as well as that may be the crucial to your monetary future.

  85. surprisingly beneficial stuff, all in all I picture this is worthy of a bookmark, thanks a lot

  86. Im getting a small problem. I cant get my reader to pick-up your feed, Im using google reader by the way.

  87. Could you email me with a few pointers about how you made your blog site look this good , I would appreciate it!

  88. If you dont mind, exactly where do you host your website? I am looking for a good quality host and your web site appears to be extremely fast and up almost all the time

  89. I really like your writing style, excellent info, thanks for putting up :D. “Kennedy cooked the soup that Johnson had to eat.” by Konrad Adenauer.

  90. You can definitely see your skills in the paintings you write. The world hopes for even more passionate writers such as you who are not afraid to say how they believe. At all times go after your heart. “A second wife is hateful to the children of the first a viper is not more hateful.” by Euripides.

  91. This is really interesting, You’re a very skilled blogger. I’ve joined your rss feed and look forward to seeking more of your magnificent post. Also, I’ve shared your web site in my social networks!

  92. of course like your web site however you have to check the spelling on quite a few of your posts. A number of them are rife with spelling problems and I in finding it very bothersome to inform the truth on the other hand I’ll certainly come again again.

  93. How do you make this site look this cool. Email me if you get the chance and share your wisdom. Id appreciate it!

  94. Is it alright to put a portion of this on my personal webpage if I submit a reference to this website?

  95. Just discovered this blog thru Google, what a pleasant shock!

  96. Yo!. Definitely loved your post. It was especially educational and useful. I hope you do not mind me blogging regarding this article on my personal website. Will definitely link back to you. Cool theme you’ve got! Merci.

  97. Amazing article, thanks, I will subscribe to you RSS soon.

  98. Great Stuff, do you currently have a youtube profile?

  99. This is very fascinating, You are an excessively skilled blogger. I have joined your feed and look forward to in search of more of your wonderful post. Additionally, I have shared your site in my social networks!

  100. I will immediately grab your rss feed as I can not find your e-mail subscription link or e-newsletter service. Do you’ve any? Kindly let me know in order that I could subscribe. Thanks.

  101. Fantastic web site. A great deal of helpful info right here.br /I’m sending it to some buddies ans additionally sharing in scrumptious. And needless to say, thanks towards your sweat!

  102. Pass up Mishka claimed on September 20, 2012

  103. You should really control the comments here

  104. I’ve learn a few excellent stuff here. Definitely worth bookmarking for revisiting. I wonder how much attempt you put to create this kind of great informative web site.

  105. I like this website very much, Its a real nice spot to read and incur information. “What is called genius is the abundance of life and health.” by Henry David Thoreau.

  106. Im getting a tiny issue. I cant get my reader to pick up your rss feed, Im using yahoo reader by the way.

  107. You have brought up a very great details , thanks for the post.

  108. Very interesting topic , regards for putting up. “The friendship that can cease has never been real.” by Saint Jerome.

  109. Hey just wanted to drop a quick note you have a nice website think about putting it in a best sites contest. Purchase Tramadol without Prescription

  110. Great blog! I am loving it!! Will be back later to read some more. I am bookmarking your feeds also.

  111. Great article. I appreciate your attention to this subject and I learned a lot

  112. I has been looking through a number of your articles about this website and I believe this web page is really informative! Keep upon posting.

  113. Its such as you learn my thoughts! You appear to grasp a lot about this, such as you wrote the e book in it or something. I believe that you can do with a few percent to drive the message house a little bit, but other than that, this is great blog. A fantastic read. I’ll definitely be back.

  114. An additional issue is that video games usually are serious in nature with the most important focus on studying rather than fun. Although, there is an entertainment factor to keep children engaged, each and every game is often designed to focus on a specific expertise or programs, such as math concepts or scientific disciplines. Thanks for your post.

  115. Today, I went to the beachfront with my children. I found a sea shell and gave it to my 4 year old daughter and said “You can hear the ocean if you put this to your ear.” She put the shell to her ear and screamed. There was a hermit crab inside and it pinched her ear. She never wants to go back! LoL I know this is completely off topic but I had to tell someone!

  116. F*ckin’ amazing things here. I am very happy to see your post. Thank you a lot and i am looking ahead to touch you. Will you please drop me a e-mail?

  117. I think you have mentioned some very interesting details , thanks for the post.

  118. Hi there! I know this is kind of off topic but I was wondering if you knew where I could locate a captcha plugin for my comment form? I’m using the same blog platform as yours and I’m having trouble finding one? Thanks a lot!

  119. Thank you for the sensible critique. Me and my neighbor were just preparing to do a little research about this. We got a grab a book from our area library but I think I learned more from this post. I’m very glad to see such magnificent information being shared freely out there.

  120. Someone necessarily assist to make significantly articles I would state. That is the very first time I frequented your website page and thus far? I amazed with the analysis you made to make this actual publish amazing. Magnificent activity!

  121. I like what you guys are up also. Such smart work and reporting! Keep up the superb works guys I have incorporated you guys to my blogroll. I think it’ll improve the value of my web site :).

  122. Really enjoyed this article, can you make it so I get an email whenever you publish a fresh update?

  123. Hey there are using WordPress for your blog platform? I’m new to the blog world but I’m trying to get started and set up my own. Do you require any coding expertise to make your own blog? Any help would be greatly appreciated!

  124. I know this if off topic but I’m looking into starting my own blog and was wondering what all is required to get setup? I’m assuming having a blog like yours would cost a pretty penny? I’m not very web savvy so I’m not 100% sure. Any tips or advice would be greatly appreciated. Thank you

  125. I’d like to thank you for the efforts you’ve put in penning this blog. I’m hoping to view the same high-grade content by you later on as well. In fact, your creative writing abilities has inspired me to get my very own site now 😉

  126. Following study some of the weblog posts inside your site now, and i genuinely such as your technique for blogging. I bookmarked it to my bookmark web site list and are checking back soon. Pls appear into my internet internet site likewise and make me aware what you consider.

  127. I visited a lot of website but I think this one holds something extra in it.

  128. This is really great, Thank you for sharing

  129. Prayer for the soul of mrs lily castro…for wednesday…..O Lord God Almighty, I pray Thee by the Precious Blood which Thy Devine Son Jesus shed in the streets of Jerusalem, when He carried the Cross upon His sacred shoulders, deliver the souls in Purgatory, and especially that soul which is richest in merits before Thee; so that it may magnify Thee and bless Thee forever. Amen…Eternal rest give unto her, O Lord, and let perpetual light shine upon them. Amen

  130. We’re a bunch of volunteers and starting a new scheme in our community. Your web site offered us with valuable info to work on. You have performed a formidable task and our whole group can be thankful to you.

  131. I simply could not leave your site prior to suggesting that I extremely loved the standard information a person supply for your visitors? Is going to be again regularly in order to check up on new posts.

  132. This sort of considering develop change in an individual’s llife, building our Chicago Pounds reduction going on a diet model are a wide actions toward creating the fact goal in mind. shed weight

  133. I wanted to thank you for this wonderful read!! I certainly enjoyed every little bit of it. I have you book-marked to check out new stuff you post…

  134. Only wanna remark that you have a very nice site, I enjoy the style and design it actually stands out.

  135. Ascertaining Straightforward Tips For utilized indication

  136. Hey, you used to write great, but the last several posts have been kinda boring… I miss your super writings. Past several posts are just a little bit out of track! come on!

  137. I love the efforts you have put in this, thank you for all the great blog posts.

  138. A great word of appreciation for the writer.The art of accomplishing writing is very useful. I need to appreciate author’s understanding of this topic.

  139. This particular topic you shows on this research is definitely a exceptional as well as hot niche. Intriguing approach and pattern in composition. Keep writing this sort of valuable info.

  140. Once i began to go through first sentences of post i didn’t suspect it will be advantageous info for me personally nevertheless right now I am sincerely greatful that I noticed such spot to learn. Regards to the writer.

  141. This unique material you reports in this article is a fine and also great field. Intriguing strategy and pattern in composition. Keep writing this kind of handy info.

  142. This particular subject matter you explains here is definitely a top-notch as well as great field. Captivating approach and style in article. Keep publishing this sort of helpful info.

  143. This unique topic you reports in this article is a exceptional and attractive field. Intriguing technique along with structure in article. Keep publishing these kinds of valuable details.

  144. Mimo, że większa część z nas jest świadoma, jak bardzo istotne prawdopodobnie jest prawidłowe Archiwizacji danych online, szkiców, umów, korespondencji, prac lub po prostu danych będących plonem naszych dociekań, niewielu z nas ma w sobie tak wiele nieustępliwości aby proces ten przeprowadzać z adekwatną liczba powtórzeń. Aby przeczytać wiecej kliknij W Łącze

  145. Aw, this was quite a very good post. In concept I have to location in writing similar to this moreover – spending time and actual effort to make a superb article… but what / points I say… I procrastinate alot and no indicates often get something carried out.

  146. You already know, I often lug approximately my “heavy” machine gun and rocket launcher since you hardly ever know when someone might insult the prophet and I want for being effectively prepared if I should really happen to stumble onto a demonstration and want to eliminate the infidels…. n nRight…. n nAlana, you won’t be able to let Carney get away using this type of 1 possibly possibly these things is obtainable in Libya however it is NOT some thing that one particular nonchalantly walks all around with, and you won’t be able to let them wiggle from the hook on this one particular… n nFirst, a “heavy” machine gun is not the excess weight of your gun even so the destructive ability of the bullets it fires, which implies .50 caliber or even bigger. By contrast, a “light” machine gun is a thing like the M-60 which fires exactly what is basically equivalent to your .308 Winchester rifle bullet it fires plenty of them incredibly fast, they’re pretty lethal whenever they hit you, but they can be considered “light” since they won’t go as a result of important things like masonry and steel. n nA “heavy” machine gun will a .50 caliber machine gun could be the heaviest weapon on most US Coast Guard vessels and, for example, the WW-II P-51 Mustang was armed with six of these. n nThis is just not a light gun. It alone weighs 84 lbs, and with its required tripod, it weighs 128 lbs. It fires 550 rounds per minute, almost 10 per 2nd, and each and every metal box of 105 rounds weighs 35 lbs. To fire this for just 10-12 minutes, you might be intending to need to have a TON of ammunition and that implies logistics and vehicles and planning. n n(It also requires apply firing it therefore you will not wind up shooting your personal persons…) n nSecond, notwithstanding what Hollywood might have us feel, this really is not a gun you can fire with the hip as Rambo did. It has to be properly secured or it should go flying which suggests instruction and practice along with the rest. Particularly if you are planning to be executing this following dark, which I think they did. So far too with RPGs they are fundamentally glorified bottle rockets and in the event you would like to have it go any place near the place you want it to go, you have got to know everything you are doing. n nThat indicates coaching, that means practice, which signifies that this was planned in advance. Once more, should you do not understand what that you are carrying out, you additional likely will get rid of yourself and your individual men and women… n nWe also must know the way they knew the place this residence a super-secret “safe house” even WAS. Michelle Bachmann’s concerns about State Dept protection and leaking data towards the Muslim Brotherhood becomes really pertinent, does it not?

  147. I surely did not realize that. Learnt something new nowadays! Thanks for that.

  148. I need to say, as a lot as I enjoyed reading what you had to say, I couldnt assist but shed interest right after a whilst. Its as should you had a amazing grasp on the topic matter, but you forgot to incorporate your readers. Perhaps you need to consider this from far far more than 1 angle. Or possibly you shouldnt generalise so considerably. Its greater should you take into consideration what other people may possibly need to say instead of just going for a gut reaction towards the topic. Take into consideration adjusting your own believed approach and giving other people who may possibly read this the benefit of the doubt.

  149. I must say, as a lot as I enjoyed reading what you had to say, I couldnt support but lose interest right after a even though. Its as if you had a great grasp on the subject matter, but you forgot to include your readers. Possibly you should consider this from far far more than one angle. Or possibly you shouldnt generalise so considerably. Its greater in case you think about what others could need to say instead of just going for a gut reaction to the subject. Consider adjusting your personal believed process and giving other people who might read this the benefit with the doubt.

  150. Hands down, Apple’s app store wins by a mile. It’s a huge selection of all sorts of apps vs a rather sad selection of a handful for Zune. Microsoft has plans, especially in the realm of games, but I’m not sure I’d want to bet on the future if this aspect is important to you. The iPod is a much better choice in that case.

  151. Youre so cool! I dont suppose Ive learn something like this before. So nice to search out any person with some unique thoughts on this subject. realy thank you for starting this up. this internet internet site is 1 thing that’s necessary on the net, someone with a bit of originality. valuable job for bringing something new towards the internet!

  152. Good day Stephen Elliot. I just got a letter dated 1/19/12 from Lorelie Lee in an envelope from you. I’ve no idea whatsoever how I got on your list. But I’ll write Lorelie back again (a real letter, even), because it was pretty fucking brave of her to write that.

  153. As I site possessor I believe the content matter here is rattling magnificent , appreciate it for your hard work. You should keep it up forever! Good Luck.

  154. Not clear on what you’ve in mind, Laila. Can you give us some more information?

  155. Good day, I discovered your website once i was looking Bling for internet sites linked to this material. I wanted to notify you, your web site is good. I just like the layout as well, its great. I don’t have the time now to totally read your site but We have bookmarked it and i also signed up for the RSS feed. I will be back again within a day or two. Thanks for the good web page.

  156. I actually like your writing style, amazing data, thankyou for posting : D.

  157. Paragraph writing is also a excitement, if you know then you
    can write if not it is complicated to write.

  158. Google…

    […]Wonderful story, reckoned we could combine some unrelated data, nonetheless truly worth taking a look, whoa did a single learn about Mid East has got additional problerms also […]…

  159. Excellent editorial! Would like took pleasure the particular following. I’m hoping to learn to read a lot much more of you. There’s no doubt that you possess tremendous awareness and even imagination. I happen to be really highly fascinated using this critical data.

  160. The next time I read a blog, Hopefully it won’t fail me as much as this particular one. I mean, Yes, it was my choice to read through, however I truly believed you would probably have something useful to say. All I hear is a bunch of whining about something that you can fix if you were not too busy seeking attention.

  161. Please check out the sites we adhere to, like this one particular, as it represents our picks from the web.

  162. Good day! I simply would like to offer you a huge thumbs up
    for the excellent information you have got here on
    this post. I am returning to your web site for more soon.

Responder

Introduce tus datos o haz clic en un icono para iniciar sesión:

Logo de WordPress.com

Estás comentando usando tu cuenta de WordPress.com. Cerrar sesión / Cambiar )

Imagen de Twitter

Estás comentando usando tu cuenta de Twitter. Cerrar sesión / Cambiar )

Foto de Facebook

Estás comentando usando tu cuenta de Facebook. Cerrar sesión / Cambiar )

Google+ photo

Estás comentando usando tu cuenta de Google+. Cerrar sesión / Cambiar )

Conectando a %s

A %d blogueros les gusta esto: